Ruthenium on alumina

CatalogNo :

Ru00003

Product Name :

Ruthenium on alumina; ruthenium methanation catalyst

Alias Name :

Ruthenium-alumina catalyst (Ruthenium content:0.5%), ruthenium methanation catalyst

Formula :

Ru

Molecular weight :

101.07

CasNo. :

7440-18-8

Purity :

Ruthenium content:0.5%

SMILES :

[Ru]

Description :

7440-18-8;Ruthenium on alumina; ruthenium methanation catalyst;钌氧化铝催化剂;钌系甲烷化催化剂.jpg

Ruthenium-alumina catalyst(Ruthenium content:0.5%),  ruthenium methanation catalyst

Cas No.

7440-18-8

particle diameter(mm)

Φ0.85~1.15

Φ2.0~3.0

Φ4.0~6.0

bulk density(Kg/m3)

710

700

670

pressure(N)

≥15

≥75

≥120

wear rate(%)

≤0.5

≤0.3

≤0.3

Comparison ofruthenium-alumina catalyst and traditional catalyst
( in the reaction of removing CO2, CO )

Type

Addition level

Application temperature

Pressure KPa

Flux Nm2/h

Feed-in H2

Discharge port H2

Traditional catalyst
J103
HJ105
J106Q

20t

395°C

5000-7000

7000-9000

H2>94%
CH4=5%
CO< 10ppm CO2< 10ppm
S<0.3ppm

H2>94%
CH4=5%
CO>5ppm
CO2>5ppm
S>0.4ppm

Ruthenium-alumina
JWH-98

1t

240±2 °C

3250- 3300

5000 – 7000

H2>94%
CH4=5%
CO<10ppm CO2<10ppm
S=0.3ppm

H2>94%
CH4=5%
CO=0
CO2<0.5ppm
S=0

 

ruthenium chloride

Ruthenium(III) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula RuCl3. “Ruthenium(III) chloride” more commonly refers to the hydrate RuCl3·xH2O. Both the anhydrous and hydrated species are dark brown or black solids. The hydrate, with a varying proportion of water of crystallization, often approximating to a trihydrate, is a commonly used starting material in rutheniumchemistry.

Contents

[hide]

  • 1 Preparation and properties
  • 2 Coordination chemistry
    • 2.1 Illustrative complexes derived from “ruthenium trichloride”
    • 2.2 Carbon monoxide derivatives
  • 3 Sources
  • 4 References
  • 5 Further reading

Preparation and properties[edit source | editbeta]

The anhydrous forms of ruthenium(III) chloride are well characterized but rarely used. Crystalline material is usually prepared by heating powdered ruthenium metal to 700 °C under a 4:1 mixture of chlorine and carbon monoxide: the product is carried by the gas stream and crystallises upon cooling.[1] RuCl3 exists is two crystalline modifications. The black α-form adopts theCrCl3-type structure with long Ru-Ru contacts of 346 pm. The dark brown metastable β-form crystallizes in a hexagonal cell; this form consists of infinite chains of face-sharing octahedra with Ru-Ru contacts of 283 pm. The β-form is irreversibly converted to the α-form at 450–600 °C.

RuCl3 vapour decomposes into the elements at high temperatures ; the enthalpy change at 750 °C (1020 K), ΔdissH1020 has been estimated as +240 kJ/mol. Rucl

Coordination chemistry[edit source | editbeta]

As the most commonly available ruthenium compound, RuCl3·xH2O is the precursor to many hundreds of chemical compounds. The noteworthy property of ruthenium complexes, chlorides and otherwise, is the existence of more than one oxidation state, several of are kinetically inert. All second and third-row transition metals form exclusively low spin complexes, whereas ruthenium is special in the stability of adjacent oxidation states, especially Ru(II), Ru(III) (as in the parent RuCl3·xH2O) and Ru(IV).

Illustrative complexes derived from “ruthenium trichloride”[edit source | editbeta]

  • RuCl2(PPh3)3, a chocolate-colored, benzene-soluble species, which in turn is also a versatile starting material. It arises approximately as follows:[2]
2RuCl3·xH2O + 7 PPh3 → 2 RuCl2(PPh3)3 + OPPh3 + 5 H2O + 2 HCl
  • [RuCl2(C6H6)]2, also chocolate brown, poorly soluble complex of benzene, arising from 1,3-cyclohexadiene as follows:[citation needed]
2 RuCl3·xH2O + 2 C6H8 → [RuCl2(C6H6)]2 + 6 H2O + 2 HCl + H2

The benzene ligand can be exchanged with other arenes such as hexamethylbenzene.[3]

  • Ru(bipy)3Cl2, an intensely luminescent salt with a long-lived excited state, arising as follows:[4]
RuCl3·xH2O + 3 bipy + 0.5 CH3CH2OH → [Ru(bipy)3]Cl2 + 3 H2O + 0.5 CH3CHO + HCl

This reaction proceeds via the intermediate cis-Ru(bipy)2Cl2.[4]

  • [RuCl2(C5Me5)]2, arising as follows:[citation needed]
2 RuCl3·xH2O + 2 C5Me5H → [RuCl2(C5Me5)]2 + 6 H2O + 2 HCl

[RuCl2(C5Me5)]2 can be further reduced to [RuCl(C5Me5)]4.

  • Ru(C5H7O2)3, a red, benzene-soluble coordination complex arising as follows:[5]RuCl3·xH2O + 3 C5H8O2 → Ru(C5H7O2)3 + 3 H2O + 3 HCl
  • RuO4, an orange CCl4-soluble oxidant with a tetrahedral structure, which is of some interest in organic synthesis.[citation needed]

Some of these compounds were utilized in the research related to two recent Nobel Prizes. Noyori was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2001 for the development of practical asymmetric hydrogenation catalysts based on ruthenium. Robert H. Grubbs was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2005 for the development of practical alkene metathesis catalysts based on ruthenium alkylidene derivatives.

Carbon monoxide derivatives[edit source | editbeta]

RuCl3(H2O)x reacts with carbon monoxide under mild conditions.[6] In contrast, iron chlorides do not react with CO. CO reduces the red-brown trichloride to yellowish Ru(II) species. Specifically, exposure of an ethanol solution of RuCl3(H2O)x to 1 atm of CO gives, depending on the specific conditions, [Ru2Cl4(CO)4], [Ru2Cl4(CO)4]2-, and [RuCl3(CO)3]-. Addition of ligands (L) to such solutions gives Ru-Cl-CO-L compounds (L = PR3). Reduction of these carbonylated solutions with Zn affords the orange triangular cluster [Ru3(CO)12].

3 RuCl3·xH2O + 4.5 Zn + 12 CO (high pressure) → Ru3(CO)12 + 3 H2O + 4.5 ZnCl2

Ruthenium oxide

Ruthenium(IV) oxide (RuO2) is a black chemical compound containing the rare metal ruthenium and oxygen. The most often used O2 catalyst is ruthenium(IV) oxide; however, care must be taken since hydrates of this oxide exist.[1]

Skeletal formula of ruthenium (IV) oxide

RuO2 is generally used as a catalyst in various industrial applications or an electrode in electrochemical processes. RuO2 is highly reactive withreducing agents, due to its oxidizing properties.

Structure and physical properties[edit source | editbeta]

Ruthenium(IV) oxide takes on the rutile crystal structure,[2][3] similar to titanium dioxide and several other metal oxides. Due to its structure, ruthenium(IV) oxide easily forms hydrates.

Ruthenium(IV) oxide is a (nearly black) purple crystalline solid at room temperature. The hydrates of RuO2 have a blue color to them.

Ruthenium oxide has great capacity to store charge when used in aqueous solutions.[4] Average capacities of ruthenium(IV) oxide have reached 650 F/g when in H2SO4 solution and annealed at temperatures lower than 200 °C.[5] In attempts to optimise its capacitive properties, prior work has looked at the hydration of ruthenium oxide, its crystallinity and particle size.

Preparation

There are various ways in preparing ruthenium(IV) oxide. The following processes described below are for preparing RuO2 as a film.

1. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of RuO2 from suitable volatile ruthenium compounds.[6]

2. The pyrolysis, or heating of ruthenium halides, suitably deposited on the substrate by spraying on the heated substrate a solution of the halide . The most commonly used halide is ruthenium(III) chloride to form RuO2.
This technique has in fact been developed by Schafer for the preparation of nearly stoichiometric RuO2 single crystals.[7]

Both process follow the same reaction mechanism:

Ru+(IV) + O2 (heat)→ RuO2

High temperature flashes of heat up to 1500 °C can remove all oxides and contaminants, and form a new oxide layer on the ruthenium.

3. Another way to prepare RuO2 is through electroplating. Films can be electroplated from a solution of RuCl3.xH2O. Pt gauze was used as the counter electrode and Ag/AgCl as the reference electrode.

Ruthenium 钌

中文名: 英文名:ruthenium
符号:Ru 序号:44
族:VIIIB 周期:5
原子质量:101.1 密度:12.30克/厘米3
外观:白色金属 熔点:231 0℃℃
 钌:硬质的白色金属,密度12.30克/厘米3。熔点231 0℃,沸点3900℃。化合价2、3、4和8。第一电离能7.37电子伏特。化学性质很稳定。在温度达100℃时,对普通的酸包括王水在内均有抗御力,对氢氟酸和磷酸也有抗御力。

Ruthenium

Name: Ruthenium
Symbol: Ru
Atomic Number: 44
Atomic Mass: 101.07 amu
Melting Point: 2250.0 °C (2523.15 K, 4082.0 °F)
Boiling Point: 3900.0 °C (4173.15 K, 7052.0 °F)
Number of Protons/Electrons: 44
Number of Neutrons: 57
Classification: Transition Metal
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal
Density @ 293 K: 12.2 g/cm3
Color: silvery

Ruthenium compounds

Chemical compounds[edit]

See also: Category:Ruthenium compounds

The oxidation states of ruthenium range from 0 to +8, and −2. The properties of ruthenium and osmium compounds are often similar. The +2, +3, and +4 states are the most common. The most prevalent precursor is ruthenium trichloride, a red solid that is poorly defined chemically but versatile synthetically.[15]

Oxides[edit]

Ruthenium can be oxidized to ruthenium(IV) oxide (RuO2, oxidation state +4) which can in turn be oxidized by sodium metaperiodate to ruthenium tetroxide, RuO4, a strong oxidizing agent with structure and properties analogous to osmium tetroxide. Like osmium tetroxide, ruthenium tetroxide is a potent fixative and stain for electron microscopy of organic materials, and is mostly used to reveal the structure of polymer samples.[20]Dipotassium ruthenate (K2RuO4, +6), and potassium perruthenate (KRuO4, +7) are also known.[21]

Coordination and organometallic complexes[edit]

Main article: Organoruthenium chemistry

Tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chloride.

Ruthenium forms a variety of coordination complexes. Examples are the many pentammine derivatives [Ru(NH3)5L]n+ which often exist in both Ru(II) and Ru(III). Derivatives of bipyridine and terpyridine are numerous, best known being the luminescent tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chloride.

Ruthenium form a wide range compounds with carbon-ruthenium bonds. Ruthenocene is analogous to ferrocene structurally, but exhibits distinctive redox properties. A large number of complexes of carbon monoxide are known, the parent being triruthenium dodecacarbonyl. The analogue of iron pentacarbonyl, ruthenium pentacarbonyl is unstable at ambient conditions. Ruthenium trichloridecarbonylates (reacts with carbon monoxide) to give mono- and diruthenium(II) carbonyls from which many derivatives have been prepared such as RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3 and Ru(CO)2(PPh3)3 (Roper’s complex). Heating solutions of ruthenium trichloride in alcohols with triphenylphosphine givestris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium dichloride (RuCl2(PPh3)3), which converts to the hydride complex chlorohydridotris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(II) (RuHCl(PPh3)3).[15]

In the area of fine chemical synthesis, Grubbs’ catalyst is used for alkene metathesis.[22]

Ruthenides[edit]

Metal ruthenides (Ru2−) are very rare, but are commonly found in superconductor applications, especially with regard to lanthanide metals e.g.cerium ruthenide (CeRu2).[23]

History[edit]

Though naturally occurring platinum alloys containing all six platinum group metals were used for a long time by pre-Columbian Americans and known as a material to European chemists from the mid-16th century, it took until the mid-18th century for platinum to be identified as a pure element. The discovery that natural platinum contained palladium, rhodium, osmium and iridium occurred in the first decade of the 19th century.[24] Platinum in alluvial sands of Russian rivers gave access to raw material for use in plates and medals and for the minting of ruble coins, starting in 1828.[25] Residues of platinum production for minting were available in the Russian Empire, and therefore most of the research on them was done in Eastern Europe.

It is possible that the Polish chemist Jędrzej Śniadecki isolated element 44 (which he called “vestium”) from platinum ores in 1807. He published an announcement of his discovery in the Polish language in article “Rosprawa o nowym metallu w surowey platynie odkrytym” in 1808. His work was never confirmed, however, and he later withdrew his claim of discovery.[7] Jöns Berzeliusand Gottfried Osann nearly discovered ruthenium in 1827.[26] They examined residues that were left after dissolving crude platinum from the Ural Mountains in aqua regia. Berzelius did not find any unusual metals, but Osann thought he found three new metals, pluranium, ruthenium and polinium. This discrepancy led to a long-standing controversy between Berzelius and Osann about the composition of the residues.[27]

In 1844, the Baltic German scientist Karl Ernst Claus showed that the compounds prepared by Gottfried Osann contained small amounts of ruthenium, which Claus had discovered the same year.[24] Claus isolated ruthenium from the platinum residues of the rouble production while he was working in Kazan University, Kazan.[27] Claus showed that ruthenium oxide contained a new metal and obtained 6 grams of ruthenium from the part of crude platinum that is insoluble in aqua regia.[27]

The name itself derives from Ruthenia, the Latin word for Rus’, a historical area which includes present-day western Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and parts of Slovakia and Poland. Claus used the name proposed by Gottfried Osann in 1828, who had chosen the element’s name in honor of his birthland, as he was born in Tartu, Estonia, which was at the time a part of the Russian Empire.[24][28]

Applications[edit]

Because of its ability to harden platinum and palladium, ruthenium is used in platinum and palladium alloys to make wear-resistant electrical contacts. In this application, only thin plated films are used to achieve the necessary wear-resistance. Because of its lower cost and similar properties compared to rhodium,[16] the use as plating material for electric contacts is one of the major applications.[8][29] The thin coatings are either applied by electroplating[30] or sputtering.[31]

Ruthenium dioxide and lead and bismuth ruthenates are used in thick-film chip resistors.[32][33][34] These two electronic applications account for 50% of the ruthenium consumption.[7]

Only a few ruthenium alloys are used other than those with other platinum group metals. Ruthenium is often used in small quantities in those alloys to improve some of their properties. The beneficial effect on the corrosion resistance of titanium alloys led to the development of a special alloy containing 0.1% ruthenium.[35] Ruthenium is also used in some advanced high-temperature single-crystal superalloys, with applications including the turbine blades in jet engines. Several nickel based superalloy compositions are described in the literature. Among them are EPM-102 (with 3% Ru) and TMS-162 (with 6% Ru), as well as TMS-138[36] and TMS-174.[37][38] both containing 6% rhenium.[39] Fountain pen nibs are frequently tipped with alloys containing ruthenium. From 1944 onward, the famous Parker 51 fountain pen was fitted with the “RU” nib, a 14K gold nib tipped with 96.2% ruthenium and 3.8% iridium.[40]

Ruthenium is a component of mixed-metal oxide (MMO) anodes used for cathodic protection of underground and submerged structures, and for electrolytic cells for chemical processes such as generating chlorine from salt water.[41] The fluorescence of some ruthenium complexes is quenched by oxygen, which has led to their use as optode sensors for oxygen.[42] Ruthenium red, [(NH3)5Ru-O-Ru(NH3)4-O-Ru(NH3)5]6+, is a biological stain used to stain polyanionic molecules such as pectin and nucleic acids for light microscopy and electron microscopy.[43] The beta-decaying isotope 106 of ruthenium is used in radiotherapy of eye tumors, mainly malignant melanomas of the uvea.[44] Ruthenium-centered complexes are being researched for possible anticancer properties.[45] Compared with platinum complexes, those of ruthenium show greater resistance to hydrolysis and more selective action on tumors.[citation needed] NAMI-A andKP1019 are two drugs undergoing clinical evaluation against metastatic tumors and colon cancers.

Catalysis[edit]

Ruthenium is a versatile catalyst. Hydrogen sulfide can be split by light by using an aqueous suspension of CdS particles loaded with ruthenium dioxide. This may be useful in the removal of H2Sin oil refineries and other industrial processing facilities.[46] Organometallic ruthenium carbene and alkylidene complexes have been found to be highly efficient catalysts for olefin metathesis, a process with important applications in organic and pharmaceutical chemistry.[47]

Solar energy conversion[edit]

Some ruthenium complexes absorb light throughout the visible spectrum and are being actively researched in various, potential, solar energy technologies. For example, Ruthenium-based compounds have been used for light absorption in dye-sensitized solar cells, a promising new low-cost solar cell system.[48]

Data storage[edit]

Chemical vapor deposition of ruthenium is used as a method to produce thin films of pure ruthenium on substrates. These films show promising properties for the use in microchips and for thegiant magnetoresistive read element for hard disk drives.[49] Ruthenium was also suggested as a possible material for microelectronics because its use is compatible with semiconductor processing techniques.[50]

Exotic materials[edit]

Many ruthenium based oxides show very unusual properties, such as a quantum critical point behavior,[51] exotic superconductivity,[52] and high temperature ferromagnetism.

Ruthenium Characteristics

Physical properties[edit]

An irregular bar of lustrous silvery metal. One end is rough, as though broken, while the other, cigar-shaped end is relatively smooth.

Half of a pure, electron-beam remelted ruthenium bar

A polyvalent hard white metal, ruthenium is a member of the platinum group and is in group 8 of the periodic table:

Z Element No. of electrons/shell
26 iron 2, 8, 14, 2
44 ruthenium 2, 8, 18, 15, 1
76 osmium 2, 8, 18, 32, 14, 2
108 hassium 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14, 2

However, it has an atypical configuration in its outermost electron shells: whereas all other group 8 elements have 2 electrons in the outermost shell, in ruthenium, one of those is transferred to a lower shell. This effect can be observed in the neighboring metals niobium (41), rhodium (45), and palladium (46).

Ruthenium has four crystal modifications and does not tarnish unless subject to high temperatures. Ruthenium dissolves in fused alkalis, is not attacked by acids but is attacked by halogens at high temperatures. Small amounts of ruthenium can increase the hardness of platinum andpalladium. The corrosion resistance of titanium is increased markedly by the addition of a small amount of ruthenium.[4] The metal can be plated either by electroplating or by thermal decomposition methods. A ruthenium-molybdenum alloy is known to be superconductive at temperatures below 10.6 K.[4]

Isotopes[edit]

Main article: Isotopes of ruthenium

Naturally occurring ruthenium is composed of seven stable isotopes. Additionally, 34 radioactive isotopes have been discovered. Of theseradioisotopes, the most stable are 106Ru with a half-life of 373.59 days, 103Ru with a half-life of 39.26 days and 97Ru with a half-life of 2.9 days.[5][6]

Fifteen other radioisotopes have been characterized with atomic weights ranging from 89.93 u (90Ru) to 114.928 u (115Ru). Most of these have half-lives that are less than five minutes except 95Ru (half-life: 1.643 hours) and 105Ru (half-life: 4.44 hours).[5][6]

The primary decay mode before the most abundant isotope, 102Ru, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta emission. The primarydecay product before 102Ru is technetium and the primary mode after is rhodium.[5][6]

Occurrence[edit]

See also: category:Ruthenium minerals

Ruthenium is exceedingly rare, only the 74th most abundant metal on Earth.[7] This element is generally found in ores with the other platinum group metals in the Ural Mountains and in North and South America. Small but commercially important quantities are also found in pentlandite extracted from Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and in pyroxenite deposits in South Africa. The native form of ruthenium is a very rare mineral (Ir replaces part of Ru in its structure).[8][9]

Production[edit]

Mining[edit]

Roughly 12 tonnes of ruthenium is mined each year with world reserves estimated as 5,000 tonnes.[7] The composition of the mined platinum group metal (PGM) mixtures varies in a wide range depending on the geochemical formation. For example, the PGMs mined in South Africa contain on average 11% ruthenium while the PGMs mined in the former USSR contain only 2% based on research dating from 1992.[10][11]

Ruthenium, like the other platinum group metals, is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing as well as by the processing of platinum group metal ores. During electrorefining of copper and nickel, noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum group metals settle to the bottom of the cell as anode mud, which forms the starting point for their extraction.[8][9] To separate the metals, they must first be brought into solution. Several methods are available depending on the separation process and the composition of the mixture; two representative methods are fusion with sodium peroxide followed by dissolution in aqua regia, and dissolution in a mixture of chlorine withhydrochloric acid.[12][13] Osmium, ruthenium, rhodium and iridium can be separated from platinum and gold and base metals by their insolubility in aqua regia, leaving a solid residue. Rhodium can be separated from the residue by treatment with molten sodium bisulfate. The insoluble residue, containing Ru, Os and Ir is treated with sodium oxide, in which Ir is insoluble, producing water-soluble Ru and Os salts. After oxidation to the volatile oxides, RuO
4 is separated from OsO
4 by precipitation of (NH4)3RuCl6 with ammonium chloride or by distillation or extraction with organic solvents of the volatile osmium tetroxide.[14] Hydrogen is used to reduce ammonium ruthenium chloride yielding a powder.[15] The first method to precipitate the ruthenium with ammonium chloride is similar to the procedure that Smithson Tennant and William Hyde Wollaston used for their separation. Several methods are suitable for industrial scale production. In either case, the product is reduced using hydrogen, yielding the metal as a powder or sponge that can be treated using powder metallurgy techniques or by argon-arc welding.[16]

From used nuclear fuels[edit]

Main article: Synthesis of precious metals

Fission products of uranium-235 contain significant amounts of ruthenium and the lighter platinum group metals and therefore used nuclear fuelmight be a possible source of ruthenium. The complicated extraction is expensive and the radioactive isotopes of ruthenium that are present would make storage for several half-lives of the decaying isotopes necessary. This makes this source of ruthenium unattractive and no large-scale extraction has been started.[17][18][19]

Ruthenium

Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44. It is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table. Like the other metals of the platinum group, ruthenium is inert to most chemicals. The Baltic German scientist Karl Ernst Claus discovered the element in 1844 and named it after Ruthenia, the Latin word for Rus’. Ruthenium usually occurs as a minor component of platinum ores and its annual production is only about 20 tonnes.[3] Most ruthenium is used for wear-resistant electrical contacts and the production of thick-film resistors. A minor application of ruthenium is its use in some platinum alloys.

General properties
Name, symbol,number ruthenium, Ru, 44
Pronunciation /ruːˈθiːniəm/
roo-thee-nee-əm
Element category transition metal
Group, period,block 8, 5, d
Standard atomic weight 101.07
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d7 5s1
2, 8, 18, 15, 1

Electron shells of ruthenium (2, 8, 18, 15, 1)
History
Naming after Ruthenia (Latin for: medieval Russian region)
Discovery Jędrzej Śniadecki (1807)
First isolation Jędrzej Śniadecki (1807)
Recognized as a distinct elementby Karl Ernst Claus (1844)
Physical properties
Density (near r.t.) 12.45 g·cm−3
Liquid density atm.p. 10.65 g·cm−3
Melting point 2607 K, 2334 °C, 4233 °F
Boiling point 4423 K, 4150 °C, 7502 °F
Heat of fusion 38.59 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 591.6 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 24.06 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2588 2811 3087 3424 3845 4388
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 8, 7, 6, 43, 2, 1,[1] -2
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.2 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 710.2 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1620 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2747 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 134 pm
Covalent radius 146±7 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal close-packed

Ruthenium has a hexagonal close packed crystal structure
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[2]
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) 71 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 117 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 6.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound(thin rod) (20 °C) 5970 m·s−1
Young’s modulus 447 GPa
Shear modulus 173 GPa
Bulk modulus 220 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.30
Mohs hardness 6.5
Brinell hardness 2160 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-18-8
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of ruthenium
iso NA half-life DM DE(MeV) DP
96Ru 5.52% >6.7×1016y β+β+ 2.7188 96Mo
97Ru syn 2.9 d ε - 97Tc
γ 0.215, 0.324 -
98Ru 1.88% 98Ru is stable with 54 neutrons
99Ru 12.7% 99Ru is stable with 55 neutrons
100Ru 12.6% 100Ru is stable with 56 neutrons
101Ru 17.0% 101Ru is stable with 57 neutrons
102Ru 31.6% 102Ru is stable with 58 neutrons
103Ru syn 39.26 d β 0.226 103Rh
γ 0.497 -
104Ru 18.7% 104Ru is stable with 60 neutrons
106Ru syn 373.59 d β 3.54 106Rh
  • v
  • t
  • e

· r